Dyslexia - How Do I Teach This Child
Educators have not been able to agree on what dyslexia really is. Some authorities believe that it is strictly a language processing problem, involving the distinguishing of sounds of letters. This is why they cannot remember phonics sounds to decode a word. Others believe that it is a visual/perceptual problem, since these children reverse words laterally (b/d) and vertically (m/w) as well as scrambling letters (the=het) when they read and write.
I believe that they are both correct. It is an auditory/language problem, visual/perceptual problem, and a visual/motor (eye/hand) problem. And my twenty-five years experience working with these bright, but struggling learners, tells me that it is mainly a midline problem. What do I mean by a midline problem? Our brain is divided into two main hemispheres, the right and the left hemisphere. The left is our "thinking" hemisphere, and the right is our "automatic" hemisphere. When children are suffering from dyslexia, the processes that should have been taken over by the right, automatic hemisphere like eye tracking, writing, and letter identification, are still in the left brain. This means that the child has to think about the processes. The learning processes can be likened to the driving process. If you had to think about how to turn the signals and when to brake and accelerate while you were driving, it would be a very difficult procedure indeed. While reading, recognition of letters, sight words, and letter combinations need to be retrieved from the right hemisphere where our long term memory is stored. This is not happening with them.
You can suspect dyslexia in your child if all three of these processing area are impacted, and your child is past the first grade. If your child has only a minor problem in the areas, it can be considered a learning "glitch". If the problem presents itself more frequently and your child is older, it would be considered a "dysfunction". If the symptoms are much more frequent, your child is above first grade, and two years behind in reading or writing, it would be considered a dyslexia. The degree of the problem and age of the child are major considerations in the determination of dyslexia. Many times these children are not reading, or reading at least two years behind grade level. They write almost no sentences from memory, since the right, visual hemisphere is not storing any words. (Copying a sentence is not considered writing). Transposing numbers (19/91) is not considered dyslexia. When a child reverses letters of numbers, even if only once in a while, you know that there is stress in the writing system. The child is having to think about the directionality of the letters, rather than the content of the writing. I always take reversals (reading and writing) seriously past the first grade. I eliminate them with brain integration therapy exercises.
1. Difficulty learning the names of alphabet letters when in kindergarten
2. Spelling has no phonetic pattern to it (Tuesday=Tunday)
3. Sounds out all words, including sight words (many, could , these)
4. No memory of words just read in a previous sentence in reading
5. Sounds out the letters in a word, but can't put it into a whole (s-t-a-n-d-)
6. Memorizes stories, but can't remember same words in another story
7. Learning the word "the" difficult
Visual/Motor Dyslexia (Dysgraphia)
1. Reverses letters and numbers in writing
2. Sometimes reverses or omits a letter in their name
3. When writing the alphabet, will ask "What does that letter look like?"
4. Cannot write words from memory
5. Copying words is like labor intensive, like "art work"
The approach I have taken to get children past the learning "block" of dyslexia, is two-fold: 1.) Brain Integration Therapy, a home therapy program designed to eliminate the midline as a problem and help eye tracking, remembering letter sounds, writing reversals, and enable the child to store words in his/her right brain, which is responsible for long term memory. 2.) A Right Brain Reading Program, including right brain phonics and spelling.
If your child is dyslexic, you have found that just having them read to you more, isn't helping. You've also found that regular phonics programs don't work, because either they can't remember the sounds of letters, or they can remember the sound, and sound out the pieces of a word, but not put it into a whole. Sight words are their enemy, so most reading books are painfully slow for them, as they try to sound out each word. Usually their comprehension is great, once they've struggled through a passage. Most parents I see have given up on spelling, and the only writing the child does, is copying sentences. Math, Social Studies, Science and Bible are the subjects that they concentrate on, with everything being read to the child.
To get a child to read, who is facing this massive struggle, brain integration therapy exercises and once a week "repatternings", using physical movements to "re-connect" the two hemispheres is the first step. Then, use a right brain reading approach. I use readers with as few sight words as possible, since these require so much memorization. Use a reader that will build reading independence by offering words that can be decoded easily. I also use a systematic, color and picture enhanced phonics program. To learn individual sounds such as consonants, vowels and letter combinations (au/aw), superimpose the letter directly on a picture that gives that sound. Then have the child read whole words, putting the vowel or letter combination in color, with the picture nearby, that gives the sound. By using this method of picture and color in whole words you will find that your child wil soon be reading very long words. Using this method I have generally been able to achieve a two year growth in reading, in a year. This is not only reading individual words, but words in a story. It is an intensive, right brain reading approach that involves about an hour a day of working together, but it pays off handsomely in its' results. This method works with second graders to eighth graders.
To get the child writing independently, have him/her do a writing exercise that crosses the midline, to eliminate reversals, and then teach him/her simple spelling words by using color, picture and looking up with the eyes, to engage the right visual hemisphere. I call this right brain spelling. I have explained this process in detail in other articles. (Smart Kids Who Hate To Write; Teaching Your Right Brain Child)
So, if you suspect that your child is struggling with dyslexia, or even a processing dysfunction, don't continue to just have them read aloud more to you, as your reading instruction. Start a systematic approach to reducing the midline as a problem, and teach them using color and picture to help them store words and sounds in their right brain hemisphere for easier retrieval. This method has proven itself over and over, even with the toughest learning problems. Invest in some colored markers, pictures and have fun, teaching your child how to use his/her powerful right brain to make the learning process easier.
©Copyright 1998, Dianne Craft
Dianne Craft, a former homeschool mother with a master's degree in special education, has over 25 years teaching experience and is a Certified Natural Health Professional. She has a private consultant practice, Child Diagnostics, Inc., in Littleton, Colorado specializing in helping parents find the reasons and discover solutions for a child's learning issues or behavior problem. Dianne also teaches Continuing Education, College Credit Classes and is a sought after speaker. For more information check out her website at: www.diannecraft.org